The date of publication of the final report announced on 30th of May 2015 is not accidental. It resulted from the fact that within this period, it will be possible to answer the question whether the claim that the cultivation of mushroom is a process of its controlled nutrition is true or not. If the answer is negative further actions would not make sense. But, in case of a positive answer, one can make the assessment and determine the next steps developing the concept. This is the case. The concept of development of cultivation based on controlled nutrition process of mushroom allows crossing the barrier of average yearly yield of 32 kg\m2 in three flushes. Thus it opens up new areas of research and the formulation of new technological solutions, with the yield of more than 40 kg\m2 as a result.
What confirms the suitability of this concept?
The following facts constitute the answer:
- The ability to influence the behavior of the mycelium and increase yield in both the first and second flush on feeding supplements introduced to the casing soil. Such results were obtained using products of company Nutrigain as well as Aril. These effects were reinforced by covering the casing soil with foil.
- The possibility of obtaining yield of 40 kg\m2 in three flushes and 45 -47% utilization of phase III substrate using a 2.5% supplement of grind corn. These yields are achievable, provided the control of the process of nutrition is proper and prevention of losses caused by diseases and pests or very low quality of raw materials used in production is in place. It is also necessary to provide the required number of pins in at least three generations in each flush.
- Obtaining fruiting bodies mushroom from the substrate not subjected to the process of composting. (Fig.1).
This allowed formulating a theoretical basis (a set of basic theorems) of paradigm referred to as the controlled process of nutrition of mushroom:
- The mushroom feeds using its enzymes to decompose the dead cell walls of plants (straw), fungi and bacteria (dead microflora) and colonizes the compost after the completion of the process of hot composting. From the cell membranes mushroom obtains carbon from polysaccharides as an energy source, nitrogen from proteins, and phosphorus from lipids.
- The basic process of nutrition is the degradation of cellulose to glucose by mushrooms’ own enzymes or micro-organisms present in the hot and cold composting. Glucose is used by mushroom mostly to create chitin by combining glucose chains of polysaccharides; cellulose, with a built – in nitrogen ion. Chitin is the basic ingredient of fruiting body of mushroom. This way it also acquires ingredients of cellular sap etc.
- The mushroom collects monosaccharides and ammonia nitrogen in aqueous solution contained in the substrate (compost) formed during the cold composting mainly by Scytalidium thermophilum.
- The mass of mycelium depends on the access to internal cell membranes, enzymes and the length of nutrition.
- Out of protein supplements (soy HP) mushroom uses oligosaccharides. In this respect the use of soybean meal affects the yield and quality of mushrooms. By contrast, a protein contained in it must be undergoing mineralization to NH4+, mainly by thermophilic organisms (thermal effect), and only to a small extent by a protease produced by mushroom.
Using above theorems the model of nutrition of mushroom using compost was developed. It includes successive actions:
- Introduction of supplements and enzymes into the phase II substrate.
- Introduction of supplements and enzymes into the phase III substrate.
- Introduction of supplements and enzymes into the casing soil.
- Control of the number and generation of pins in each flush and maintenance of domination process of older and stronger fruiting bodies.
- Maintenance of linear growth of fruiting bodies with high volumetric weight and maintaining the original for the race shape of the fruiting bodies through control of evaporation based on content (and or water deficit) of the air in growing rooms with its minimal movement.
The level of yield and its repeatability in the second flush have still not yet been satisfactorily resolved (Fig. 2 and 3). The increase in yields of the second flush and following will be done by the intensifying of the cold composting process through earlier introduction of enzymes and supplements not used by mushroom in the process of enzymatic decomposition in the compost and the casing soil.
New supplements and enzymes are the subject of conducted development work. Parallel laboratory tests are conducted on the suitability of the aforementioned model on a substrate without compost based on mechanically processed straw, enzymes, and peat. The key is choosing the right diet and enzymes. It is also intended to carry out tests on the use of:
- Used substrate treated with enzymes.
- Liquid supplement received from the decomposition of a balanced supplement by deliberately chosen enzymes such as produced in mycelium of mushroom.
It seems that a key role in obtaining the substrate without composting should be attributed to intentional use of enzymes.
More recently a number of other tests were carried out. There was no noticed usefulness of measuring oxygen in the growing room to control the behavior of mushrooms. The growth of pins and fruiting bodies is influenced by ability to keep constant evaporation rather than carbon dioxide content. The first observations of races from the group U-1 indicate that they may be the factor of the increase of yield. The conduct of shock and release of pins between flushes was changed.
On this website, since July 2015, you will be able to find the English version of articles on nutrition of mushroom, previously published quarterly in Pieczarki Biuletyn Producentów Pieczarek. The first is already being published and should be released at the end of end of September.